3-HOT for pain relief
3-HOT is intended for: reduction or elimination of pain; lowering fever; anti-inflammatory processes. 3-HOT is a natural aspirin that has no harmful effects on the stomach and intestinal tract. It is ideal for eliminating stiffness of the neck, shoulders and back. 3-HOT capsules contain white willow bark extract (60% salicin), feverfew extract (0.3% parthenolide) and boswellia resin (65% boswellic acid).
Their synergistic action in 3-HOT enhances the effect of the individual action of each of the components.
Dry willow bark extract (60% salicin)
Willow bark is one of the rare herbal substances with a wide spectrum of action, and has analgesic (pain), antipyretic (temperature), anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antirheumatic, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. It is used for therapeutic purposes to relieve pain in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and to relieve mild osteoarthritis and rheumatic problems. The German Commission E approved the use of willow bark as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiphlogistic in cases of rheumatic problems, headaches and fever.
The use of willow bark dates back to the time of Hippocrates (400 BC) when people were advised to chew willow bark to reduce fever and inflammation. Willow bark has been used for centuries in China and Europe, and is still used today to treat pain (especially lower back pain), headaches and inflammatory conditions such as bursitis and tendinitis. White willow bark contains salicin (without acetyl group), which is a chemical similar to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). In combination with other compounds of the plant, salicin is considered to be responsible for alleviating and anti-inflammatory action of the plant.
Willow bark contributes to pain relief more slowly than aspirin, but its effects can last longer.
Some studies show that willow is as effective as aspirin in reducing pain and inflammation at a much lower dose.
The antiinflammatory properties of willow bark are associated with inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 cyclooxygenases and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNFα and IL-3. Willow bark exerts antioxidant effects and protects articular cartilage.
The broad-spectrum medicinal properties of willow bark can be attributed to its unique composition, namely: the presence of salicylic glycosides (SG), flavonoids, phenolic acid and catechins. Salicylic glycosides such as salicin, salicortin, tremulacin, salireposide, picein, triandrin, populin fragilin, tremuloidin, acetyl salicortin, grandidentin and salicyl tremulacin are responsible for the main medicinal properties of willow bark. Flavonoids and phenolic acids also exert therapeutic effects by modulating inflammatory control mechanisms (antiinflamatory properties) and inhibiting enzymes that catalyze arachidonic acid, including cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and phospholipases. Flavonoids are also mild diuretics and they are useful in treatment of metabolic disorders.
Phenolic acids are the least well-known group of compounds in the chemical composition of willow bark. Catechins and catechin polymers have antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and astringent properties, and they alleviate intestinal inflammation.
Recent research has demonstrated that willow bark possesses anticarcinogenic properties. Hostanska et al. (Hostanska K, Jurgenliemk G, Abel G, Nahrstedt A, Saller R. Willow bark extract (BNO1455) and its fractions suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human colon and lung cancer cells. Cancer Detect Prev. 2007; 31; 2 ): 129-139.17418981) analyzed the influence of salicylic alcohol, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins isolated from willow bark extract on the proliferation and apoptosis of human colorectal cells and various cancer cells. All the examined compounds exhibited antiproliferative activity. Enayat i Banerjee (Enayat S, Banerjee S. The ethanolic extract of bark from Salix aegyptiaca L. inhibits the metastatic potential and epithelial to mesenchymal transition of colon cancer cell lines. Nutr Cancer. 2014; 66 (6): 999-1008.) reported high levels of antioxidant, phenolic and flavonoid activity in ethanol extracts willow bark. In cancer cells incubated with willow bark extract, the preparation decreased cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and disrupted the cell cycle by inhibiting phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. The observed effects were similar in magnitude to those of commercial inhibitor drugs. Willow bark extract strongly inhibited the growth, motility, migration, and adhesion of HCT 116 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cell lines. The above reaction was accompanied by the restoration of e-cadherin expression and the reduction of EGFR, SNAI1, SNAI2, Twist1 and MMP9 and MMP2 matrix metalloproteinases. Many of these proteins participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, the key stage in the progression of malignant cells. Enayat and Banerjee demonstrated that the extract willow bark is a potent nutraceutical candidate for chemotherapy.
There is evidence that willow bark is less likely to cause gastrointestinal side effects than other painkillers, such as ibuprofen (Advil), brufen, aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Feverfew extract (0.3% parthenolide)
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. )(Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to treat fever, migraine headaches, stomach aches, toothaches, insect bites, infertility and problems with painful menstruation. This plant has a long history of use in traditional and folk medicine, especially among Greek and early European physicians. Feverfew is also used for psoriasis, allergies, asthma, tinnitus, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. The plant contains a large number of natural active ingredients, but the active principles include one or more sesquiterpene lactones, including parthenolide. Other potentially active ingredients are glycosides and pinenes. It has several pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, anticancer and as an anthelmintic enema.
Medical studies show that the mechanism of antimigraine action of feverfew and parthenolide is based on anti-inflammatory activity: by inhibiting the synthesis of the kinase complex IKKβ, prostaglandins and thromboxane as mediators of the inflammatory process; preventing the release of arachidonic acid, inhibiting platelet aggregation, inhibiting phospholipase in platelets, inhibiting the release of serotonin from platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules and the cytotoxic effect.
Parthenolide inhibits the growth of gram-positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi.
Anticancer activity – mechanisms of action may include: cytotoxic activity associated with the cessation of DNA replication by highly reactive lactone ring, epoxide and methylene groups of parthenolides through inhibition of thymidine in DNA; oxidative stress, intracellular thiol depletion, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Parthenolide and similar lactones have shown anticancer activity on several cancer cell lines, including human fibroblasts, human throat cancer, human Simian virus-transformed human cells, human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx, and anti-Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activity.
Alpha-pinene derivatives may have sedative and mild sedative effects. Extracts of this plant also inhibit the release of enzymes from white cells located in inflammatory joints, and a similar anti-inflammatory effect can also appear on the skin, which explains the traditional use of vomit for psoriasis.
Dry extract of boswellia resin (65% boswellic acid)
The resin of the boswellia plant or Indian incense is a dried rubber resin that forms as an exudate after cuts are made on the stems or branches of the Boswellia serrata tree. The rubber resin slowly hardens in contact with air. It can be reddish-brown, greenish-yellow or dull yellow and orange in color with a characteristic aromatic odor and acceptable taste. Incense extract is traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine as an arthritis remedy, astringent, stimulant, expectorant and antiseptic.
The resinous part of Boswelia serrata contains: monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, pentacyclic triterpenic acids (boswellic acids); tetracyclic triterpenic acids. The most important triterpene compounds of biological interest are boswellic acid compounds. Also, incense contains significant amounts (23-36%) of mucopolysaccharides which consist mainly of D-galactose and arabinose and to a lesser extent of D-mannose, dxylose, galactumosic acid, rhamnose and others.
Boswellia resin is used for therapeutic purposes to relieve painful arthritis, for symptomatic treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), bronchial asthma, blood lipid control, anticoronary plaque, liver protection. Oral use for the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis has been described in various pharmacopoeias. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat abdominal pain, asthma, cough, dysentery, fever, jaundice, kidney stones, etc.
In vitro and animal model studies have shown that boswellic acids have been shown to inhibit the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory enzyme, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), including 5-hydroxyiecosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB-4), which cause bronchoconstriction, chemotaxis and increased vascular permeability. Other anti-inflammatory ingredients of plants, such as quercetin, also block this enzyme, but they do so in a more general way as an antioxidant, while boswellic acids appear to be a specific inhibitor of 5-LO. 5-LO produces inflammatory leukotrienes that cause inflammation by promoting free radical damage, calcium dislocation, cell adhesion, and the migration of cells that produce inflammation to the inflamed part of the body. Unlike nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), which are known to disrupt glycosaminoglycan synthesis, thus accelerating joint damage in arthritic conditions, boswellic acids have been shown to significantly reduce glycosaminoglycan degradation.
Boswellic acids have also been observed to inhibit human leukocyte elastase (HLE), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. HLE also stimulates mucus secretion and thus may play a role in cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. HLE is a serine protease, which triggers tissue injuries that lead to an inflammatory process. This dual inhibitory effect on the inflammatory process is unique to boswellic acids.
Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid inhibits prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor angiogenesis, 2-mediated angiogenesis.
Based on all the above, 3-HOT does not act on only one mechanism in the body, but has a wider spectrum of action.
– Elimination of pain (analgesic)
– Reducing fever (antipyretic)
– Anti-inflammatory processes (antiphlogistic)
– Prevention of headaches and migraines
– Preservation of normal function of physical and mental abilities
– Preservation of normal function of the nervous-muscular system
In addition to the above, 3-HOT also has:
– Cardiotonic effect
– Antiaggregation effect
– Chemotherapeutic effect
– Anticancer effect