NMN+Pterostilbene is a nutritional supplement made by combining NMN and pterostilbene (dimethyl resveratrol).
NMN, nicotinamide mononucleotide, consists of a nicotinamide group, ribose and a phosphate group. NMN is a direct precursor of the essential molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and is considered a key component for increasing NAD+ levels in cells.
NAD+ provides cells with the energy they need and is thought to be extremely important for healthy aging. NAD+ also plays a key role in activating proteins that maintain DNA integrity.
NAD+ is an essential coenzyme required for life and cellular functions. Enzymes are catalysts that enable biochemical reactions. Coenzymes are “helper” molecules that enzymes need to function.
NAD+ is produced in the body from smaller components or precursors. There are five main precursors that occur in the body: tryptophan, nicotinamide (Nam), nicotinic acid (NA or niacin), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN represents one of the final steps of NAD+ synthesis. All these precursors can be ingested through food.
Cells use NAD+ for a variety of purposes, some of the most important being the production of energy that cells need to function, activation of proteins that repair damaged DNA, regulation of the circadian rhythm (controls the body’s sleep/wake cycle). As we age, the amount of this molecule decreases.
One way to maintain a healthy level of NAD+ in the body is by supplementing it with its precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). To produce more NAD+, more precursors such as NMN are needed.
NAD+ is a molecule that cannot enter the cell as such because of the barrier represented by the cell membrane. That is why NMN is used as a supplement.
Pterostilbene (dimethyl resveratrol)
Pterostilbene, or dimethyl resveratrol, is a polyphenol found in plants. The structure of pterostilbene is similar to that of resveratrol. Pterostilbene is more fat soluble and this property improves its bioavailability. It is well absorbed, easily distributed throughout the body and can cross the blood-brain barrier. Research has found that pterostilbene has similar but stronger health effects than those found for resveratrol.
Resveratrol has been shown to work well in combination with NMN. Resveratrol is essential for activating sirtuin genes (which protect DNA and the epigenome). However, resveratrol is hardly absorbed in the intestines, and the little resveratrol that ends up in the body is broken down very quickly. Therefore, pterostilbene is an ideal and much more effective solution than resveratrol.
Thanks to modern medicine and advances in healthcare, the world’s population is living longer and longer. With the increase of the elderly population, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, osteoarthritis, neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, diabetes mellitus and cancers have increased leading to a large global socioeconomic and medical burden. It means that a long life does not guarantee a healthy life. As the body ages, it becomes weak and fragile, which makes it more susceptible to disease.
This is why the medical practice of aging management has become a real hit in the world of recommending nutritional supplements, various medications, exercise programs, hormone therapies and other treatments to mitigate the effects of aging. One of those who devoted himself to research and achieved significant results in slowing down the aging process is Prof. dr. David Sinclair Harvard Medical School.
Sarcopenia, Greek for “poverty of flesh,” is a consistent manifestation of aging, associated with frailty, metabolic disease, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and significant health care costs. Therefore, strategies aimed at treating sarcopenia and age-related diseases are needed.
Using the supplement NMN+Pterostilbene leads to: slowing down the aging process as well as eliminating the harmful consequences due to the consumption of sugar, alcohol, smoking (rejuvenation of the body and skin, removal of wrinkles, more energy, improved memory and mental activities, weight regulation, less frequent illnesses, longer life span …) through the maintenance and repair of damaged DNA and by regulating-increasing mitochondrial activity, neurodegenerative protection (dementia, Alzheimer’s, ALS), reducing the risk of obesity, regulating diabetes, increasing endurance and muscle strength, improving the health of the cardiovascular system.
Slowing down the aging process (anti-aging)
NMN+Pterostilbene contributes to the production of NAD+ which is a cellular fuel, which helps sirtuins to maintain genome integrity and repair DNA. Sirtuin activation requires NAD+, and pterostilbene plays a significant role in sirtuin activation. A decline in sirtuin activity is thought to be the primary reason why diseases often occur in old age.
A decrease in NAD+ homeostasis contributes to the aging process. NAD+ and sirtuins regulate different pathways that control aging and longevity, and have the ability to defend mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction and defective cellular energy signaling are critical in aging and age-related metabolic diseases such as T2DM (type 2 diabetes), NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) and sarcopenia. Altered mitochondrial homeostasis, through decreased NAD+ and SIRT1 activity, is considered a hallmark of muscle aging.
By improving the maintenance of damaged DNA repair and regeneration, as well as by regulating mitochondrial activity, NMN+Pterosilben contributes to a healthy aging process and its slowing down (anti-aging effect).
Maintenance and repair of damaged DNA
NMN+Pterostilbene contributes to the increase of NAD+ which activates a group of proteins called sirtuins – which are considered the guardians of our health.
Sirtuins, known as the “guardian of genes”, play a vital role in maintaining cell health. They belong to a family of enzymes that participate in cellular stress responses and damage repair. They are also involved in insulin secretion, aging processes and age-related health conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes, skin changes.
As organisms age, they develop DNA damage due to environmental factors such as radiation, pollution, and imprecise DNA replication. Accumulation of DNA damage is a major cause of aging. Sirtuins play a key role in maintaining the integrity of DNA, which is constantly bombarded by DNA-altering substances (mutagens) such as UV radiation. Also, every time our cells divide, the DNA at the very ends of our chromosomes gets a little shorter. Sirtuins stabilize these ends, scientifically known as telomeres. Since sirtuins rely on NAD+ for their function, increasing NAD+ increases sirtuin activity.
The functioning of the DNA repair protein, PARP (Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), depends on NAD+. Elderly people have reduced levels of NAD+. Accumulation of DNA damage as a result of the normal aging process leads to increased PARP, which causes decreased NAD+ concentration. This depletion is exacerbated by further DNA damage in the mitochondria.
Regulation-enhancement of mitochondrial function
NMN+Pterostilbene contributes to the increase of NAD+, which plays an important role in metabolic processes, i.e. the process of energy generation.
Mitochondria are unique cellular structures that have their own DNA and are known as the powerhouses of cells. They convert molecules from food into energy that cells use.
Without NAD+, mitochondria cannot metabolize and cells will run out of energy, leading to their death. NAD+ has an active role in metabolic processes such as glycolysis, the Krebs cycle or the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain, which occurs in the mitochondria. In this way, cellular energy is created.
NAD+ binds to enzymes and transfers electrons between molecules. Electrons are the atomic basis for cellular energy, and by transferring them from one molecule to another, NAD+ works through the cellular mechanism similar to charging a battery. A battery is discharged when electrons are used up to provide energy. Those electrons cannot return to their starting point without being boosted. In cells, NAD+ serves as that booster. In this way, NAD+ can decrease or increase enzyme activity, gene expression, and cell signaling.
Mitochondrial abnormalities caused by loss of NAD+ can affect neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Neurodegeneration (dementia, Alzheimer’s, ALS)
NMN+Pterostilbene contributes to the increase of NAD+ which can reduce the accumulation of proteins that disrupt cellular communication in the brain to increase cognitive functions (Alzheimer’s disease). Increasing NAD+ levels also protects brain cells from dying when there is insufficient blood flow to the brain.
Studies have shown that pterostilbene can reverse cognitive decline associated with aging, as well as leading to improved memory. Studies show that pterostilbene reduces the decline of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, reducing its metabolism and breakdown leading to improved memory performance and increased acetylcholine levels. In accelerated aging studies, pterostilbene has been shown to help prevent memory loss and improve inflammatory conditions and other signs of dementia pathology, while resveratrol was ineffective in the same model.
Reducing the risk of obesity
Obesity can lead to a wide range of unhealthy conditions and can be very challenging to treat. Obesity is often viewed only as a lack of will to control one’s diet, but data points to other causes. Besides dietary control and regular exercise, alternative approaches are needed to help solve the obesity epidemic, such as the use of NMN+Pterostilbene supplements.
In studies, NMN shows an effect that mimics aspects of calorie restriction which has numerous benefits in aging and maintaining health.
NAD+ is one of the keys to maintaining healthy mitochondrial functions and stable energy output. Aging and a high-fat diet decrease the level of NAD+ in the body. Studies have shown that taking NAD+ boosters can mitigate weight gain and improve exercise capacity.
Depending on the structure, adipose tissue is divided into white and brown. Brown adipose tissue is a type of fat that produces heat by burning calories, which is useful for weight loss. White adipose tissue is the adipose tissue associated with weight gain and obesity. Pterostilbene has been shown to increase the calorie expenditure of brown adipose tissue. In addition, it also helps transform white adipose tissue to behave more like brown adipose tissue, burning extra calories. Also, pterostilbene has been shown to block fat cell replication and fat absorption into white adipose tissue.
Specific changes in the intestinal flora encourage weight gain, and it has been proven that pterostilbene has an effect on restoring the balance of the intestinal flora, which also plays a role in the treatment of obesity.
Regulation of diabetes
The global burden of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) limits population health leading to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death.
Impaired NAD + -mediated sirtuin signaling also has links to insulin resistance and T2DM. Defective SIRT1 activity is thought to be a factor in reduced insulin sensitivity. This is supported by the finding that metformin acts via SIRT1 activation in the liver as part of its diabetes-relieving effects.
A number of natural compounds have positive effects on blood sugar balance and help in the treatment of diabetes. The researchers found that pterostilbene had a blood sugar-lowering effect comparable to the standard diabetes drug metformin. Additional diabetes studies have revealed that pterostilbene has numerous protective effects (inhibiting kidney damage, improving wound healing…).
Increasing endurance and muscle strength
NMN+ Pterostilbene increases endurance and muscle strength.
Muscles are essential for movement, stability and strength. In order to be strong and stay in good condition, muscles must consume significant amounts of key energy molecules, such as glucose and fatty acids. Since NAD+ is necessary for the metabolism of these molecules, muscles need a constant supply of NMN.
Vascular health and heart disease
NMN+Pterostilbene protects the health of blood vessels.
Studies have shown that NMN protects the health of blood vessels related to the aging process, such as: stiffening of blood vessels, oxidative stress, the ability of cells to continue dividing, and changes in gene activity (gene expression).
Skeletal muscles take breaks, and the heart works constantly. The heart can’t even slow down without causing serious problems. The energy needs of the heart are enormous. In order for it to work, it needs to have a sufficient amount of NAD+. Therefore, heart cells need a constant supply of NMN.
Increasing NAD+ levels protects the heart and improves cardiac function. High blood pressure can cause an enlarged heart and clogged arteries that lead to stroke.
Pterostilbene helps protect against heart disease through a number of mechanisms, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Studies have found that pterostilbene protects the heart from damage or improves heart function, even during acute heart failure or after a heart attack. Preliminary studies indicate blood pressure-lowering effects with pterostilbene.
Targeting NAD+ in Metabolic Disease: New Insights Into an Old Molecule (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686634/)
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) as an anti-aging health product – Promises and safety concerns (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2090123221001491)
NAD+ metabolism and its roles in cellular processes during aging (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963035/)
A Review of Pterostilbene Antioxidant Activity and Disease Modification (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3649683/)